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Community of Inquiry References

Academic References

Christopher, M., Thomas, J., & Tallent-Runnells, M. (2010). Raising the bar: Encouraging higher-level thinking in online discussion forums. Roeper Review, 26(3), 166-171.

Compares the experiences of students interacting in online discussion forums and the more time‐constrained interactions students would experience in courses held on campus.​

Clarke, L., & Bartholomew, A. (2014). Digging Beneath the Surface: Analyzing the Complexity of Instructors’ Participation in Asynchronous Discussion. Online Learning: Official Journal of The Online Learning Consortium, 18(3). Retrieved from

Analyzes the impacts of instructor participation in asynchronous discussions.

Dallimore, E., Hertenstein, J., & Platt, M. (2010).  Classroom participation and discussion effectiveness: Student-generated strategies. Journal of Communication Education.

Explores techniques faculty can use to increase participation in discussions.

Dockter, J. (2016). The Problem of Teaching Presence in Transactional Theories of Distance Education. Computers and Composition, 40, 73–86.

Link to pdf:

Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2000). Critical inquiry in a text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education model. The Internet and Higher Education, 2(2-3), 87-105.

Presentation of foundational research on the elements of the Community of Inquiry framework.

Hosler, K., & Arend, B. (2012). The importance of course design, feedback, and facilitation: student perceptions of the relationship between teaching presence and cognitive presence. Educational Medial International, 49(3).

Investigates student perceptions of elements of cognitive and teaching presence in both online and face-to-face classes.​

Richardson, J. C., Besser, E., Koehler, A., Lim, J., & Strait, M. (2016). Instructors’ Perceptions of Instructor Presence in Online Learning Environments. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 17(4).

Considers online faculty perceptions of instructor presence.

Shea, P., Pickett, A., & Pelz, W. (2003). A follow-up investigation of "teaching presence" in the SUNY learning network. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 7(2), 61-80.

Examines components of teaching presence that comprise productive online interactions amongst students and between faculty and students.​

Sheridan, K., & Kelly, M.A. (2010). The Indicators of Instructor Presence that are Important to Students in Online Courses. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 6(4), 767–779.

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